Difference between 「〜が」, 「〜ても」, and 「のに〜」

Though you might have learned 「~ても」in basic class, you might still be unsure about this expression? I know some good Japanese speakers, but there are few who can speak Japanese with this expression.

You probably know「~ても」 to mean 'even if', but what's the actual difference between 「~ても」and「が」?

1) Basic level



1-3) テストがあっても、勉強しません。 1-4) テストがありますが、勉強しません。

1-4) iPhoneが高くても、買います。

1-5) iPhoneが(は)高いですが、買います。

「~ても」is used when the outcome in the main clause (会社に行きます) is contrary to what is expected to happen under the given situation in the first clause (熱があっても). Normally, people expect that when you have a fever, you won’t go to office for work. But if you go to office, which is contrary to (other people's) expectation, then you can use 「~ても」. And this expression is used for hypothesis.

「が」is used to depict 2 opposite matters . And this expression doesn't have an 'unexpected' implication. The most obvious difference is that you can use 「~ても」when you would like to say something as a hypothesis.

1-3) テストがあっても、勉強しません。 1-4) テストがありますが、勉強しません。

1-5) iPhoneが高くても、買います。

1-6) iPhoneが(は)高いですが、買います。

2) Intermediate level

2-1) 熱があっても、働きます。

2-2) 熱があるのに、働きます。

What's the difference of 「~ても」and 「~のに」? 「~のに」is used to express an event or state that that is contrary to what is usually expected from the fact. And 「のに」implies the speaker’s subjective feeling of disappointment, blame or regret. Please note that 「のに」is used for fact, while「ても」is used for hypothesis. This is the defining difference between 「ても」and 「のに」is that. Here are more example sentences:

2-3) テストがあっても、勉強しません。 2-4) テストがあるのに、勉強しません。

2-5) iPhoneは高くても、人気があります。

2-6) iPhoneは高いのに、人気があります。

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